"A Survey of Irish Usage among Immigrants in the United States." In The Irish Language in the United States: A Historical, Sociolinguistic, and Applied Linguistic Study
, edited by Thomas W. Ihde. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1994, 67-76.
Annotations / Notes: To evaluate the persistence of Irish language usage by Irish immigrants to the United States in the period following 1922, McGowan conducted a limited survey of respondents in New York, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. In order to determine the impact of Irish language instruction fostered by the Free State of Ireland, she selected only those who had been educated in Irish primary schools after the implementation of the language policy. She found that for most immigrants to the United States, Irish had remained a "school language," not used a great deal in everyday life, though there were important degrees of persistence in reading, writing, and conversation.