Search Results

Please note: These search results do not contain links to electronic articles hosted by the University of Maryland Libraries, although some may be available online. Please contact the University of Maryland Libraries for assistance in obtaining copies of any of the articles cited in this bibliography.

Your search in the category "African American" returned 1439 results in 72 pages.

Showing results 161 through 180.

161)
Benson, Robert Louis. "Notes on South County: Part IV: Additional Recollections of William H. Hall IV." Anne Arundel County History Notes 24 (April 1993): 9-10.

162)
Benson, Robert Louis. "Notes on South County: Part V." Anne Arundel County History Notes 25 (October 1993): 9, 14.

163)
Bentley, Amy. "Wages of War: The Shifting Landscape of Race and Gender in World War II Baltimore." Maryland Historical Magazine 88 (Winter 1993): 420-43.
Annotations / Notes: Bentley examines the impact of the dramatic changes occasioned by World War II-era production in Baltimore. In terms of race, while Jim Crow patterns prevailed in various arenas, most notably housing, new employment opportunities eventually became available as well, especially in such critical industries as steel and other war-related industries. Similarly, the role of women in employment expanded even as traditional roles were reaffirmed. Bentley argues that new wartime values challenged conventional stereotypes regarding race and gender and provided the basis for eventual changes.

164)
Bentley, Judith. Harriet Tubman. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

165)
Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Free At Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Annotations / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume covers the comprehensive African American experience from slavery to freedom. Organized around primary documents, with short explanatory introductions, it explores various significant themes in this complex transformation. African Americans discovered that northerners, as well as former masters, were reluctant to recognize their equality and often imposed their views on such things as labor relations, the extent of personal freedom, and their proper role in the military. This book reveals that former slaves possessed a complex and sophisticated understanding of the meaning of freedom.

166)
Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. Series I, Volume II. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Upper South. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Annotations / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume focuses on the genesis of free labor. Chapter 4, which presents an essay followed by original documents, is devoted to the Maryland experience. Although slavery and free labor co-existed throughout the 19th century, slavery had been concentrated in Southern Maryland and on the Eastern Shore, and it was here that the greatest tension existed during the Civil War era. Runaway slaves quickly appeared at unionist camps, such as Point Lookout, or escaped to the national capital, in search of freedom and employment. By 1864 several government farms were created along the Patuxent River from abandoned property which was home to over 600 former slaves. Former slaves discovered that emancipation did not mean freedom. The state legislature, still under the influence of former slave owners, passed restrictive laws circumscribing their freedom, including an apprenticeship law which allowed white landowners to forcefully "apprentice" black children. The Union commander, General Lew Wallace, attempted to counteract this program by issuing General Order 112, but the effort was not supported by the national government.

167)
Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. Series II. The Black Military Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Annotations / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume focuses on the black military experience. Unlike most of the previous volumes, where there was an entire chapter devoted to Maryland, references to the state are scattered throughout the book. By the spring of 1865 some 179,000 black men enlisted in the Union army, of which 8,718 were from Maryland. These figures do not include service in the naval forces. Black enlistment helped to undermine slavery but it also contributed to a shortage of labor in rural areas. The families of enlistees were often ill-treated. Once in the Army, blacks were discouraged by unequal pay and by doing more manual labor than fighting. By the end of the war, however, black units fought with distinction. In Maryland, like other border states, black veterans were the objects of widespread terror as the former planter class attempted to reassert its hegemony.

168)
Berlin, Ira, Francine C. Cary, Steven F. Miller, and Leslie S. Rowland. "Family and Freedom: Black Families in the American Civil War." History Today [Great Britain] 37 (1987): 8-15.

169)
Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Category: African American

170)
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.

171)
Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.
Annotations / Notes: The author spends some time discussing Maryland, and the Upper South in general, in order to emphasize geographic distinctions which impacted the status of free Negroes. He postulates that the treatment and status of free blacks foreshadowed the treatment of black people in general after emancipation. In addition, the author examines the various classes of free blacks to understand how different groups viewed their social role. For the elite, positions of leadership continued after the Civil War. Maryland is of particular interest since by 1810, almost one-quarter of Maryland's black population was free. Maryland therefore had the largest free black population of any state in the nation.

172)
Bernard, Kenneth A. "Lincoln and the Music of the Civil War." Lincoln Herald 66 (1964): 115-134.

173)
Bernier, Celeste-Marie. “A ‘Typical Negro’ or a ‘Work of Art’? The ‘Inner’ via the ‘Outer Man’ in Frederick Douglass’s Manuscripts and Daguerrotypes.” Slavery and Abolition, 33 (June 2012): 287-303.

174)
Bernier, Celeste-Marie. “A Comparative Exploration of Narrative Ambiguities in Frederick Douglass’s Two Versions of The Heroic Slave (1853, 1863?).” Slavery and Abolition, 22 (August 2001): 69-86.
Category: African American

175)
Bernier, Celeste-Marie. “‘His Complete History’?: Revisioning, Recreating, and Reimagining Multiple Lives in Frederick Douglass’s Life and Times (1881, 1892).” Slavery and Abolition, 33 (December 2012): 595-610.

176)
Bernier, Celeste-Marie. “Emblems of Barbarism: Black Masculinity and Representations of Toussaint L’Ouverture in Frederick Douglass’s Unpublished Manuscripts.” American Nineteenth Century History, 4 (Fall 2003): 97-120.
Category: African American

177)
Bernier, Celeste-Marie. “From Fugitive Slave to Fugitive Abolitionist: The Oratory of Frederick Douglass and the Emerging Heroic Slave Tradition.” American Studies, 3 (no. 2, 2006): 201-24.

178)
Berry, John. "Librarian of the Year: 1995: Carla D. Hayden: Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore." Library Journal 121 (January 1996): 36.

179)
Beschy, Clyde. "The Negro Mountain School." Glades Star, 5 (December 1982): 467-70.

180)
Billingsley, Andrew. "Family Reunion-The Legacy of Robert Smalls: Civil War Hero." Maryland Humanities (Winter 1993): 14-17.