Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. Series I, Volume II. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Upper South
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Annotations / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume focuses on the genesis of free labor. Chapter 4, which presents an essay followed by original documents, is devoted to the Maryland experience. Although slavery and free labor co-existed throughout the 19th century, slavery had been concentrated in Southern Maryland and on the Eastern Shore, and it was here that the greatest tension existed during the Civil War era. Runaway slaves quickly appeared at unionist camps, such as Point Lookout, or escaped to the national capital, in search of freedom and employment. By 1864 several government farms were created along the Patuxent River from abandoned property which was home to over 600 former slaves. Former slaves discovered that emancipation did not mean freedom. The state legislature, still under the influence of former slave owners, passed restrictive laws circumscribing their freedom, including an apprenticeship law which allowed white landowners to forcefully "apprentice" black children. The Union commander, General Lew Wallace, attempted to counteract this program by issuing General Order 112, but the effort was not supported by the national government.