There are approximately 71,000 book and pamphlet titles in the Prange Collection, including books for adults and children. The monographs, published during the early post-War years, cover a wide range of subjects, including literature, history, economics, politics, agriculture, law, science and technology, religion, philosophy, and education. Many of the works address issues faced in post-World War II Japan, such as the economic restoration of Japan, extreme inflation, the effect of the new constitution, and the fundamental reform of the old primary and secondary school system. The collection includes works by well-known writers such as Nobel laureate Kawabata Yasunari and Tanizaki Jun'ichiro.
The 8,000 children's books in this collection include picture books, comic books, story books and children's games and coloring books. The collection is an invaluable source for social and cultural history, for the study of popular literature, and for an understanding of Japanese concerns for their children during the postwar period. The children's book collection has been digitized. "Guide to the Gordon W. Prange Children's Book Collection, occupation-period censored children's books, the University of Maryland Libraries" is available in the Prange Collection, as well as in McKeldin Library (Call No. EASIA JAREFO PZ49.2 .G67 2004).